by clicking the "Next" arrow.
by clicking on the page.
the page around when zoomed in by dragging it.
the zoom using the slider when zoomed-in.
by clicking on the zoomed-in page.
by entering text in the search field, and select "This Issue" or "All Issues"
by clicking on thumbnails to select pages, and then press the print button.
displays sections with thumbnails and descriptions.
displays a slider of thumbnails. Click on a page to jump.
allows you to browse the full archive.
about your subscription?
Mindful : February 2015
Therapists may conclude their treatments are effective merely because their remain- ing clients a re those who have improved. There is also no way to know what would have happened without therapy. Not only ca n life events alleviate mental illness, as Horney pointed out, but so can the placebo effect. People expect to improve, and they do. Estimates of the size of the placebo effect in psycho- therapy (from comparisons of people who got actual therapy to those who got a therapist’s attention and promise of treatment but no actual intervention) put it at half the effect of active therapies. A 1986 study found that the mere prospect of receiving help can ma ke a difference: about 15% of patients improved between the first phone call and the first session. Confirmation bias—the deeply ingrained tendency to seek evidence that supports one’s beliefs and to over- look or deny what doesn’t . Clinicians may notice and remember clients who seemed to improve, and forget those who dropped out or never made progress. For insta nce, a therapist who practices confrontation therapy, in which clients are forced to face their weaknesses, may “attend to and recall the sessions in which the client was doing better and neglect and forget” those where he was doing “worse,” Lilienfeld and his colleagues wrote. “As a consequence, the therapist may conclude that his use of confrontation was con- sistently followed by client improvement, even though it was not.” The illusion of control—the all-too-human tendency to inflate our ability to influence events. It’s why people prefer to choose their own lottery number, and it biases some therapists to believe what they do exerts a g reater effect on client outcomes than it actually does. In a 2012 study, therapists in private practice rated their own effectiveness as in the 80th percentile, on average, while one-quarter thought they were in the 90th percentile; call it psychology’s Lake Wobegon Effect. Clients are no less subject to the illusion of therapeutic efficacy. Consider critical incident stress debriefing (CISD), a popula r intervention for victims of trauma such as natural disasters, war, terror- ism, and crime. Controlled studies—g iving CISD to some people and not others and evaluating them before and after—found it ineffective a nd sometimes harmful: people with high scores on a mea- sure of post-traumatic stress disorder pre-treatment who received CISD improved, but high scorers who received no intervention improved more. When trauma victims who receive CISD improve, it’s not because of the therapy; they probably would have improved even more without it. Opponents of evidence- based practice in psychology contend clinical experience trumps controlled trials. They arg ue that trials might use clients with different sy mp- toms or circumstances from those they see or conduct the therapy differently from how they do. But as long as cog- nitive pitfalls lead psycholo- gists to erroneously believe a treatment worked, there is less incentive to rigorously identify those that truly do. As long as countless people suffer with mental disorders, ignorance is not bliss, and self-delusion among thera- pists is the worst kind. ● February 2015 mindful 21 “Do you want to learn mindfulness without leaving home? If so, this is an ideal place to start. Written in an exceptionally clear and encouraging style, it is chock-full of practical wisdom, supportive research, and opportunities for self-refection.” —Christopher Germer, PhD, author of The Mindful Path to Self-Compassion Bestselling author Shamash Alidina shows just how simple it is to master the proven techniques of mindfulness-based stress reduction. In as little as 10 minutes a day over 8 weeks, the reader is taken step by step through a carefully structured sequence of guided meditations and easy yoga exercises. Purchasers get access to a companion website featuring downloadable audio recordings of the guided mindfulness practices. Shamash Alidina has been helping peo- ple to manage stress using mindfulness for over 14 years. He is the author of the bestselling Mindfulness For Dummies. Based in London, United Kingdom, he teaches mindfulness internationally to health profes- sionals, executive coaches, and the public. He also offers mindfulness teacher training programs online. 2015, 7" x 10" Paperback, 325 Pages, ISBN 978-1-4625-0940-9, $16.95 e Also available as an e-book JuSt PubliSheD A Roadmap to Greater Balance and Calm Guilford Press www.guilford.com • 800-365-7006 AvAilAble Wherever books Are sold